Whenever you are handling numbers in any programming language you need to be aware of the idiosyncrasies of how the language handles numbers. Here are a few critical pieces of information about numbers in JavaScript that you should be aware of.

Core Type

JavaScript has only one number type. It is a double-precision 64-bit Number. Below we discuss its limitations along with a recommended solution.


For those familiar with doubles / float in other languages, you would know that binary floating point numbers do not map correctly to Decimal numbers. A trivial (and famous) example with JavaScript's built in numbers is shown below:

console.log(.1 + .2); // 0.30000000000000004

For true decimal math use big.js mentioned below.


The integer limits represented by the built in number type are Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER and Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER.

console.log({max: Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER, min: Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER});
// {max: 9007199254740991, min: -9007199254740991}

Safe in this context refers to the fact that the value cannot be the result of a rounding error.

The unsafe values are +1 / -1 away from these safe values and any amount of addition / subtraction will round the result.

console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 1 === Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 2); // true!
console.log(Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER - 1 === Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER - 2); // true!

console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER);      // 9007199254740991
console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 1);  // 9007199254740992 - Correct
console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 2);  // 9007199254740992 - Rounded!
console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 3);  // 9007199254740994 - Rounded - correct by luck
console.log(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 4);  // 9007199254740996 - Rounded!

To check safety you can use ES6 Number.isSafeInteger:

// Safe value
console.log(Number.isSafeInteger(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER)); // true

// Unsafe value
console.log(Number.isSafeInteger(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 1)); // false

// Because it might have been rounded to it due to overflow
console.log(Number.isSafeInteger(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER + 10)); // false

For arbitrary precision integer math use big.js mentioned below.


Whenever you use math for financial calculations (e.g. GST calculation, money with cents, addition etc) use a library like big.js which is designed for

  • Perfect decimal math
  • Safe out of bound integer values

Installation is simple:

npm install big.js @types/big.js

Quick Usage example:

import { Big } from 'big.js';

export const foo = new Big('111.11111111111111111111');
export const bar = Big('0.00000000000000000001'));

// To get a number:
const x: number = Number(bar.toString()); // Loses the precision

Do not use this library for math used for UI / performance intensive purposes e.g charts, canvas drawing etc.


When some number calculation is not representable by a valid number, JavaScript returns a special NaN value. A classic example is imaginary numbers:

console.log(Math.sqrt(-1)); // NaN

Note: Equality checks don't work on NaN values. Instead use Number.isNaN instead:

// Don't do this
console.log(NaN === NaN); // false!!

// Do this
console.log(Number.isNaN(NaN)); // true


The outer bounds of values representable in Number are available as static Number.MAX_VALUE and -Number.MAX_VALUE values.

console.log(Number.MAX_VALUE);  // 1.7976931348623157e+308
console.log(-Number.MAX_VALUE); // -1.7976931348623157e+308

Values outside the range where precision isn't changed are clamped to these limits e.g.

console.log(Number.MAX_VALUE + 1 == Number.MAX_VALUE);   // true!
console.log(-Number.MAX_VALUE - 1 == -Number.MAX_VALUE); // true!

Values outside the range where precision is changed resolve to special values Infinity/-Infinity e.g.

console.log(Number.MAX_VALUE + 10**1000);  // Infinity
console.log(-Number.MAX_VALUE - 10**1000); // -Infinity

Of-course, these special infinity values also show up with arithmetic that requires it e.g.

console.log( 1 / 0); // Infinity
console.log(-1 / 0); // -Infinity

You can use these Infinity values manually or using static members of the Number class as shown below:

console.log(Number.POSITIVE_INFINITY === Infinity);  // true
console.log(Number.NEGATIVE_INFINITY === -Infinity); // true

Fortunately comparison operators (< / >) work reliably on infinity values:

console.log( Infinity >  1); // true
console.log(-Infinity < -1); // true


The smallest non-zero value representable in Number is available as static Number.MIN_VALUE

console.log(Number.MIN_VALUE);  // 5e-324

Values smaller than MIN_VALUE ("underflow values") are converted to 0.

console.log(Number.MIN_VALUE / 10);  // 0

Further intuition: Just like values bigger than Number.MAX_VALUE get clamped to INFINITY, values smaller than Number.MIN_VALUE get clamped to 0.

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